The Who, What, Where, When and Sometimes, Why.

Lymph Node Status

What are lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes are small clumps of immune cells that act as filters for the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system runs throughout the body, like the circulatory (blood) system. It carries fluid and cells.

If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (the axillary lymph nodes) are the first place it’s likely to go.

The following is a 3D interactive model showing the parts of the breast. The model also shows the location of the axillary lymph nodes where breast cancer can spread.

What is lymph node status?

Lymph node status is highly related to prognosis (chance of survival).

  • Lymph node-negative means none of the axillary lymph nodes contain cancer.
  • Lymph node-positive means at least one axillary lymph node contains cancer.

Prognosis is better when breast cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes (lymph node-negative) [12].

The more lymph nodes that contain cancer, the poorer prognosis tends to be [12].

Learn about lymph node status and breast cancer stage.

Lymph node status and tumor size

Lymph node status is related to tumor size. The larger the tumor, the more likely it is the breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes (lymph node-positive) [13].

Physical exams and pathology exams

Sometimes, positive lymph nodes can be felt during a physical exam or seen on breast imaging. However, a pathologist’s exam of the lymph nodes removed during a biopsy or surgery is needed to determine lymph node status.

During a physical exam, your health care provider will feel under your arm to check if the lymph nodes are enlarged. If the lymph nodes feel enlarged, it’s likely the breast cancer has spread there. However, the cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes even if they don’t feel enlarged.

The pathologist will check the lymph nodes under a microscope. Some women with negative lymph nodes based on a physical exam have nodes with cancer found during the pathology exam [13]. And some women with enlarged nodes during a physical exam have cancer-free nodes [13].

Assessing lymph nodes (sentinel node biopsy and axillary dissection)

Sentinel node biopsy is the most common way to check the axillary lymph nodes for cancer.

In some cases, an axillary dissection (which removes more tissue than a sentinel node biopsy) is done.

Learn more about sentinel node biopsy, axillary dissection and lymph node assessment.

For a summary of research studies on sentinel node biopsy and lymph node status, visit the Breast Cancer Research Studies section.

Updated 12/20/22