High socioeconomic status (SES) is most often defined by:
- High income and/or
- High education level
High SES has been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer [316-321].
This increased risk is not due to the higher SES itself. It’s related to differences in risk factors found in women of different education and income levels [316-321].
For example, compared to women of lower SES, women of higher SES are more likely to:
- Drink more alcohol
- Have fewer children
- Have their first child at a later age
- Use birth control pills
- Use menopausal hormone therapy (postmenopausal hormones)
Each of these factors increases the risk of breast cancer [316-321].