The Who, What, Where, When and Sometimes, Why.

Facts and Statistics References

  1. National Cancer Institute. Breast cancer treatment (adult) (PDQ®) – patient version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/breast-treatment-pdq, 2019.
  2. Osborne MP and Boolbol SK. Chapter 1. Breast anatomy and development, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2014.
  3. Lee CI and Elmore JG. Chapter 10. Breast cancer screening, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2014.
  4. Dillon D, Guidi AJ, Schnitt SJ. Chapter 25: Pathology of Invasive Breast Cancer, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
  5. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: Breast cancer V.3.2020. http://www.nccn.org/, 2020.
  6. Visser LL, Groen EJ, van Leeuwen FE, Lips EH, Schmidt MK, Wesseling J. Predictors of an invasive breast cancer recurrence after DCIS: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 28(5):835-845, 2019. 
  7. Overmoyer B, Pierce LJ. Chapter 59: Inflammatory Breast Cancer, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
  8. National Cancer Institute. Inflammatory breast cancer. http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/ibc-fact-sheet, 2016.
  9. Hansen NM. Chapter 63: Paget’s Disease, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
  10. Terando AM, Agnese DM, Holmes DR. Treatment and prognosis of rare breast cancers. Ann Surg Oncol. 22(10):3225-9, 2015.
  11. Dillon D, Guidi AJ, Schnitt SJ. Chapter 25: Pathology of Invasive Breast Cancer, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
  12. Lee H, Jung SY, Ro JY, et al. Metaplastic breast cancer: clinicopathological features and its prognosis. J Clin Pathol. 65(5):441-6, 2012.
  13. Leyrer CM, Berriochoa CA, Agrawal S, et al. Predictive factors on outcomes in metaplastic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 165(3):499-504, 2017.
  14. Ong CT, Campbell BM, Thomas SM, et al. Metaplastic breast cancer treatment and outcomes in 2500 patients: a retrospective analysis of a national oncology database. Ann Surg Oncol. 25(8):2249-2260, 2018.

  15. Mariotto AB, Etzioni R, Hurlbert M, PenberthyL, Mayer M. Estimation of the number of women living with metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 26(6):809-815, 2017.
  16. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Stage distribution of SEER incidence cases by sex, 2008-2017. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Accessed on April 24, 2020, https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020. 
  17. Lippman ME. Chapter 74: Management summary for the care of patients with metastatic breast cancer, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2014.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What are the symptoms of breast cancer? http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/symptoms.htm, 2018.
  19. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer signs and symptoms. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/about/breast-cancer-signs-and-symptoms.html, 2019.
  20. American Cancer Society. Breast biopsy. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection/breast-biopsy.html2019.
  21. Rohan TE, Negassa A, Chlebowski RT, et al. Conjugated equine estrogen and risk of benign proliferative breast disease: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 100(8):563-71, 2008.
  22. Bertelsen L, Mellemkjaer L, Balslev E, Olsen JH. Benign breast disease among first-degree relatives of young breast cancer patients. Am J Epidemiol. 168(3):261-7, 2008.
  23. Berkey CS, Tamimi RM, Rosner B, Frazier AL, Colditz GA. Young women with family history of breast cancer and their risk factors for benign breast disease. Cancer. 118(11):2796-803, 2012.
  24. Berkey CS, Willett WC, Frazier AL, et al. Prospective study of adolescent alcohol consumption and risk of benign breast disease in young women. Pediatrics. 125(5):e1081-7, 2010.
  25. Liu Y, Tamimi RM, Berkey CS, et al. Intakes of alcohol and folate during adolescence and risk of proliferative benign breast disease. Pediatrics. 129(5):e1192-8, 2012.
  26. Liu Y, Colditz GA, Rosner B, et al. Alcohol intake between menarche and first pregnancy: a prospective study of breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 105(20):1571-8, 2013.
  27. Boeke CE, Tamimi RM, Berkey CS, et al. Adolescent carotenoid intake and benign breast disease. Pediatrics. 133(5):e1292-8, 2014.
  28. Baer HJ, Schnitt SJ, Connolly JL, et al. Early life factors and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 14(12):2889-97, 2005.
  29. Berkey CS, Tamimi RM, Willett WC, et al. Dietary intake from birth through adolescence in relation to risk of benign breast disease in young women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 177(2):513-525, 2019. 
  30. Berkey CS, Rosner B, Tamimi RM, et al. Body size from birth through adolescence in relation to risk of benign breast disease in young women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 162(1):139-149, 2017.
  31. Ahlgren M, Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J, Sørensen TI. Growth patterns and the risk of breast cancer in women. N Engl J Med. 351(16):1619-26, 2004.
  32. Baer HJ, Tworoger SS, Hankinson SE, Willett WC. Body fatness at young ages and risk of breast cancer throughout life. Am J Epidemiol. 171(11):1183-94, 2010.
  33. Harris HR, Tamimi RM, Willett WC, Hankinson SE, Michels KB. Body size across the life course, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 174(8):909-18, 2011.
  34. Fagherazzi G, Guillas G, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Mesrine S. Body shape throughout life and the risk for breast cancer at adulthood in the French E3N cohort. Eur J Cancer Prev. 22(1):29-37, 2013.
  35. Keinan-Boker L, Levine H, Derazne E, Molina-Hazan V, Kark JD. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 158(1):157-67, 2016.
  36. Horn-Ross PL, Canchola AJ, Bernstein L, Neuhausen SL, Nelson DO, Reynolds P. Lifetime body size and estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort. Breast Cancer Res. 18(1):132, 2016.
  37. Twig G, Yaniv G, Levine H, et al. Body-mass index in 2.3 million adolescents and cardiovascular death in adulthood. N Engl J Med. 374(25):2430-40, 2016.
  38. Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Frost MH, et al. Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 353(3):229-37, 2005.
  39. Dyrstad SW, Yan Y, Fowler AM, Colditz GA. Breast cancer risk associated with benign breast disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 149(3):569-75, 2015.
  40. Menes TS, Kerlikowske K, Lange J, Jaffer S, Rosenberg R, Miglioretti DL. Subsequent breast cancer risk following diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia on needle biopsy. JAMA Oncol. 3(1):36-41, 2017.
  41. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: Breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Version 1.2019. http://www.nccn.org, 2020.
  42. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: Breast cancer risk reduction. Version 1.2019. http://www.nccn.org, 2020.
  43. Laronga C, Tollin S, Mooney B. Breast cysts-clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. In: Chagpar AB and Chen W, eds. UpToDate. Waltham, MA, UpToDate, 2018.
  44. Webb PM, Byrne C, Schnitt SJ, et al. A prospective study of diet and benign breast disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 13(7):1106-13, 2004.
  45. Sabel MS. Overview of benign breast disease. In: Chagpar AB and Chen W, eds. UpToDate. Waltham, MA, UpToDate, 2020.
  46. Collins LC and Schnitt SJ. Chapter 9. Pathology of benign breast disorders, in Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2014.
  47. National Cancer Institute. Breast changes and conditions. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/breast-changes, 2018.
  48. Kabat GC, Jones JG, Olson N, et al. A multi-center prospective cohort study of benign breast disease and risk of subsequent breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 21(6):821-8, 2010.
  49. Visscher DW, Nassar A, Degnim AC, et al. Sclerosing adenosis and risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 144(1):205-12, 2014.
  50. Sanders ME, Page DL, Simpson JF, Schuyler PA, Dale Plummer W, Dupont WD. Interdependence of radial scar and proliferative disease with respect to invasive breast carcinoma risk in patients with benign breast biopsies. Cancer. 106(7):1453-61, 2006.
  51. Berg JC, Visscher DW, Vierkant RA, et al. Breast cancer risk in women with radial scars in benign breast biopsies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 108(2):167-74, 2008.
  52. Aroner SA, Collins LC, Connolly JL, et al. Radial scars and subsequent breast cancer risk: results from the Nurses’ Health Studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 139(1):277-85, 2013.
  53. American Cancer Society. Phyllodes tumors of the breast. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast.html, 2019.
  54. Grau AM, Chakravarthy AB, Chugh R. Phyllodes tumors of the breast. In: Pierce LJ, Hays DF, Chagpar AB, Chen W, eds. UpToDate. Waltham, MA, UpToDate, 2020.
  55. American Cancer Society. Fat necrosis and oil cysts in the breasts. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/fat-necrosis-and-oil-cysts-in-the-breast.html, 2019.
  56. American Cancer Society. Mastitis. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/mastitis.html, 2019.
  57. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2020. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2020.
  58. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.5: Cancer of the breast (invasive). Age-adjusted SEER incidence rates by year, race and sex. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  59. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.6: Cancer of the breast (invasive). Age-adjusted U.S. death rates by year, race and sex. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  60.  American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2019-2020. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2019.
  61. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al., editors. SEER Fast Stats, 1975-2014. Incidence and mortality 2000-2014. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats/, accessed January 31, 2018.
  62. Kerlikowske K, Miglioretti DL, Buist DSM, Walker R, Carney PA for the National Cancer Institute-Sponsored Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Declines in invasive breast cancer and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy in a screening mammography population. J Natl Cancer Inst. 99(17):1335-9, 2007.
  63. Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al. for the WHI Investigators. Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 5;360(6):573-87, 2009.
  64. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans 2019-2021. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2019.
  65. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.18. Cancer of the female breast (invasive): Age-adjusted rates and trends by race/ethnicity, 2013-2017. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  66. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.8: Age-adjusted SEER incidence rates by year, race and age. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  67. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.9: Age-adjusted SEER death rates by year, race and age. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  68. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Recent trends in SEER incidence rates, 2000-2017, by sex. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020.
  69. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Recent trends in U.S. mortality rates, 2000-2017, by sex. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020.
  70. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2009. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2009.
  71. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2016. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2016.
  72. The United States Census Bureau. National population totals and components of change: 2010-2019. Cumulative estimates of resident population change for the United States, regions, states, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/popest/2010s-national-total.html#par_textimage_2011805803, 2020.
  73. The United States Census Bureau. The nation’s median age continues to rise. https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2017/comm/median-age.html, 2018.
  74. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Health Organization (WHO). GLOBOCAN 2018: Breast. http://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/factsheets/cancers/20-Breast-fact-sheet.pdf, 2019.
  75. Fitzmaurice C, Allen C, Barber RM, et al. for the Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 32 cancer groups, 1990 to 2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. JAMA Oncol. 3(4):524-548, 2017.
  76. Weiss A, Chavez-MacGregor M, Lichtensztajn DY, et al. Validation study of the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition prognostic stage compared with the anatomic stage in breast cancer. JAMA Oncol. 4(2):203-209, 2018.
  77. American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures, 2019-2020. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2019.
  78. U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Preventive care benefits for women. https://www.healthcare.gov/preventive-care-women/, 2020.
  79. Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, et al. The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med. 336: 1401-8, 1997.
  80. Chen S, Parmigiani G. Meta-analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 penetrance. J Clin Oncol. 25(11):1329-33, 2007.
  81. Antoniou AC, Cunningham AP, Peto J, et al. The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers: updates and extensions. Br J Cancer. 98(8):1457-66, 2008.
  82. Kuchenbaecker KB, Hopper JL, Barnes DR, et al. Risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. JAMA. 317(23):2402-2416, 2017.
  83. National Cancer Institute. Genetics of breast and gynecologic cancers: high-penetrance breast and/or gynecologic cancer susceptibility genes. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-ovarian-genetics-pdq#section/_88, 2020.
  84. Fentiman IS, Fourquet A, Hortobagyi GN. Male breast cancer. Lancet. 367(9510):595-604, 2006.
  85. Lecarpentier J, Silvestri V, Kuchenbaecker KB, et al. Prediction of breast and prostate cancer risks in male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers using polygenic risk scores. J Clin Oncol. 35(20):2240-2250, 2017.
  86. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: Genetic/familial high-risk assessment: breast, ovarian and pancreatic, version 1.2020. http://www.nccn.org/, 2020.
  87. Torre LA, Sauer AM, Chen MS Jr, Kagawa-Singer M, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: converging incidence in males and females. CA Cancer J Clin. 66(3):182-202, 2016.
  88. Yi M, Liu P, Li X, et al. Comparative analysis of clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival of Asian women with a breast cancer diagnosis residing in the United States. Cancer. 118(17):4117-25, 2012.
  89. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 1.11: Median age of cancer patients at diagnosis, 2013-2017, by primary cancer site, race and sex. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  90. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.13: Cancer of the female breast (invasive): 5-year relative and period survival by race, diagnosis year, age and stage at diagnosis. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 27, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  91. Iqbal J, Ginsburg O, Rochon PA, Sun P, Narod SA. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. JAMA. 313(2):165-73, 2015.
  92. Walsh SM, Zabor EC, Stempel M, Morrow M, Gemignani ML. Does race predict survival for women with invasive breast cancer? Cancer. 125(18):3139-3146, 2019.
  93. Ko NY, Hong S, Winn RA, Calip GS. Association of insurance status and racial disparities with the detection of early-stage breast cancer. JAMA Oncol. 6(3):385-392, 2020.
  94. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for Hispanics/Latinos, 2018-2020. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2018.
  95. Gopalani SV, Janitz AE, Martinez SA, Gutman P, Khan S, Campbell JE. Trends in cancer incidence among American Indians and Alaska Natives and non-Hispanic whites in the United States, 1999-2015. Epidemiology. 31(2):205-213, 2020.
  96. White A, Richardson LC, Li C, Ekwueme DU, Kaur JS. Breast cancer mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 1990-2009. Am J Public Health. 104 Suppl 3:S432-8, 2014.
  97. Zaritsky E, Dibble SL. Risk factors for reproductive and breast cancers among older lesbians. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 19(1):125-31, 2010.
  98. Austin SB, Pazaris MJ, Rosner B, Bowen D, Rich-Edwards J, Spiegelman D. Application of the Rosner-Colditz risk prediction model to estimate sexual orientation group disparities in breast cancer risk in a U.S. cohort of premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 21(12):2201-8, 2012.
  99. Boehmer U, Miao X, Linkletter C, Clark MA. Adult health behaviors over the life course by sexual orientation. Am J Public Health. 102(2):292-300, 2012.
  100. Azagba S, Shan L, Latham K. Overweight and obesity among sexual minority adults in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16(10): 1828, 2019.
  101. Austin SB, Pazaris MJ, Nichols LP, Bowen D, Wei EK, Spiegelman D. An examination of sexual orientation group patterns in mammographic and colorectal screening in a cohort of U.S. women. Cancer Causes Control. 24(3):539-47, 2013.
  102. Hart SL, Bowen DJ. Sexual orientation and intentions to obtain breast cancer screening. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 18(2):177-85, 2009.
  103. de Blok CJM, Wiepjes CM, Nota NM, et al. Breast cancer risk in transgender people receiving hormone treatment: nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. BMJ. 365:l1652, 2019.
  104.  Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2020. CA Cancer J Clin. 70(1):7-30, 2020.
  105. National Cancer Institute. Breast cancer treatment during pregnancy. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/pregnancy-breast-treatment-pdq, 2019.
  106. American Cancer Society. Key statistics for breast cancer in men. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer-in-men/about/key-statistics.html, 2020.
  107. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 4.17. Cancer of the female breast (invasive): Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with cancer given alive and cancer-free at current age, females, 2015-2017 by race/ethnicity. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 29, 2020. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  108. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Recent trends in SEER incidence rates, 2000-2017, by sex, all races, all ages, all stages, observed rates. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on May 11, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020.
  109. National Cancer Institute. Male breast cancer treatment-patient version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/male-breast-treatment-pdq, 2019.
  110. American Cancer Society. Can breast cancer in men be found early? https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer-in-men/detection-diagnosis-staging/detection.html, 2018.
  111. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Recent trends in SEER incidence rates, 2000-2017, by race/ethnicity, male, all ages, all stages, observed rates. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 29, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020.
  112. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER*Explorer. Recent trends in SEER mortality rates, 2000-2017, by race/ethnicity, male, all ages, all stages, observed rates. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 29, 2020. https://seer.cancer.gov/explorer/, 2020.
  113. Jain S and Gradishar WJ. Chapter 61: Male breast cancer. In Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2014.
  114. American Cancer Society. Signs and symptoms of breast cancer in men. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer-in-men/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html, 2018.
  115. Chavez-Macgregor M, Clarke CA, Lichtensztajn D, Hortobagyi GN, Giordano SH. Male breast cancer according to tumor subtype and race: A population-based study. Cancer. 119(9):1611-7, 2013.
  116. Gradishar WJ and Ruddy KJ. Breast cancer in men. In: Chagpar AB, Hayes DF and Vora SR, eds. UpToDate. Watham, MA, UpToDate, 2020.
  117. Niewoehner CB, Schorer AE. Gynaecomastia and breast cancer in men. BMJ. 336(7646):709-13, 2008.
  118. Brinton LA, Carreon JD, Gierach GL, McGlynn KA, Gridley G. Etiologic factors for male breast cancer in the U.S. Veterans Affairs medical care system database. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 119(1):185-92, 2010.
  119. Brinton LA, Cook MB, McCormack V, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project results. J Natl Cancer Inst. 106(3):djt465, 2014.
  120. Liede A, Karlan BY, Narod SA. Cancer risks for male carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2: a review of the literature. J Clin Oncol. 22(4):735-42, 2004.
  121. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, et al. (editors). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2017. Table 1.15. Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with cancer by site and race/ethnicity, males, 21 SEER areas, 2015-2017. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Accessed on April 29, 2020. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, 2020.
  122. Leongamornlert D, Mahmud N, Tymrakiewicz M, et al. Germline BRCA1 mutations increase prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 106(10):1697-701, 2012.
  123. Oh M, Alkhushaym N, Fallatah S, et al. The association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with prostate cancer risk, frequency, and mortality: A meta-analysis. Prostate. 79(8):880-895, 2019.
  124. Orr N, Lemnrau A, Cooke R, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant in RAD51B associated with male breast cancer risk. Nat Genet. 44(11):1182-4, 2012.
  125. Silvestri V, Zelli V, Valentini V, et al. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing provide insights into the role of PALB2 as a male breast cancer susceptibility gene. Cancer. 123(2):210-218, 2017.
  126. Rizzolo P, Zelli V, Silvestri V, et al. Insight into genetic susceptibility to male breast cancer by multigene panel testing: Results from a multicenter study in Italy. Int J Cancer. 145(2):390-400, 2019.
  127. Hassett MJ, Somerfield MR, Baker ER. Management of male breast cancer: ASCO guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 14 [Online ahead of print.].
  128. Thorlacius S, Sigurdsson S, Bjarnadottir H, et al. Study of a single BRCA2 mutation with high carrier frequency in a small population. Am J Hum Genet. 60(5): 1079–1084, 1997.

 

Updated 05/15/20

TOOLS & RESOURCES

Join the Movement
Find a race or walk near you
Learn More

Everything you do makes a difference

Discover the ways you can help Get Involved

Find a Komen
Affiliate in Your Area
Learn More