The Who, What, Where, When and Sometimes, Why.

Deciding Between Mastectomy or Lumpectomy

It may be hard to decide whether to have mastectomy or lumpectomy (also called breast-conserving surgery).

First, talk with your surgeon to see if you have a choice between mastectomy and lumpectomy plus radiation therapy.

If you have a choice, study your options. Weigh the risks and benefits of each surgery and choose the one that’s right for you. Survival is the same no matter which option you choose [2-3].

If you want reconstruction, find out if there’s a plastic surgeon available who specializes in breast reconstruction. This may be important when making a decision about surgery. Discuss your reconstruction options with your plastic surgeon before your breast surgery.

Neoadjuvant (preoperative) therapy

In some cases, neoadjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, hormone therapy, HER2-targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy given before surgery) can change a woman’s surgical options.

Neoadjuvant therapy may shrink a tumor enough so lumpectomy becomes an option to mastectomy.

Sometimes, the lymph nodes in the underarm area are enlarged due to the spread of breast cancer to these lymph nodes. Neoadjuvant therapy can shrink the tumors in the lymph nodes. This makes it easier to surgically remove these lymph nodes. In some cases, fewer lymph nodes will be removed.

Survival and breast cancer recurrence


Survival with lumpectomy plus radiation therapy is the same as with mastectomy [2-3]. They both lower the risk of dying from breast cancer and the risk of dying from any cause by the same amount [2-3].

Breast cancer recurrence

The risk of breast cancer recurrence (return of breast cancer) varies greatly from person to person. For example, the risk of recurrence varies by the stage of the breast cancer at diagnosis and the biology of the tumor.

Most people diagnosed with breast cancer will never have a recurrence. However, everyone who has had breast cancer is at risk of recurrence.

Compared to mastectomy, there’s a slightly higher risk of local breast cancer recurrence (the cancer returning within the breast) with lumpectomy [2]. A local recurrence is treated with some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, HER2-targeted therapy and/or other drug therapy.

The risk of breast cancer spreading to other parts of the body (called metastasis or distant recurrence) is the same for both procedures [2].

Learn more about treatment for local breast cancer recurrence and treatment for metastasis.


For a summary of research studies on mastectomy versus lumpectomy plus radiation therapy and overall survival, visit the Breast Cancer Research Studies section.

Risks and benefits of mastectomy and lumpectomy plus radiation therapy

Figure 5.3 below outlines some things to consider when choosing between mastectomy and lumpectomy plus radiation therapy.

The main benefit of lumpectomy plus radiation therapy is the breast is preserved as much as possible.

A potential benefit of mastectomy is radiation therapy may be avoided. Although some women will need radiation therapy after mastectomy, many will not. Ask your health care team if you are likely to avoid radiation therapy if you have mastectomy.

Radiation therapy has some side effects and most often requires daily trips to a treatment center for 1-6 weeks. If you can’t get to a radiation treatment center, or if you can’t have radiation therapy, mastectomy is usually a better option than lumpectomy.

Figure 5.3: Total mastectomy versus lumpectomy plus radiation therapy

Total mastectomy

Lumpectomy plus radiation therapy

Treatment for early breast cancer

Very effective

Very effective

Amount of tissue removed

Entire breast

Part of the breast (tries to keep the original look of the breast)

Extent of surgery

Major surgery with general anesthesia

Less extensive surgery with general or regional anesthesia, or local anesthesia with sedation

Hospital stay

At least one overnight hospital stay is needed

Most people go home the same day as surgery

Radiation therapy

Sometimes done

Almost always done

Temporary soreness of chest, underarm and shoulder



Chance of recurrence in the breast (local recurrence)

Very low for early-stage breast cancer

Low for early-stage breast cancer (but slightly higher than with mastectomy)

Chance of recurrence outside the breast (metastasis, distant recurrence)

Same as with lumpectomy plus radiation therapy

Same as with mastectomy

Chance of lymphedema if you have a sentinel node biopsy or an axillary dissection



What to expect after surgery

Pain and numbness

With both mastectomy and lumpectomy, you will have some soreness in your chest, underarm and shoulder. If you have breast reconstruction at the same time as mastectomy, there can be more discomfort. Pain related to surgery may be treated with mild pain relievers or if the pain is more severe, prescription medication.

If lymph nodes in the underarm area (axillary lymph nodes) are removed during surgery, you may also have some numbness and a burning feeling under and behind your arm.

After mastectomy, you’ll be numb across your chest (from your collarbone to the top of your rib cage). Unfortunately, this numbness usually doesn’t go away. You may get some feeling back over time, but it will never be the same as before surgery.

After lumpectomy, you’re likely to have numbness along the surgical scar.

Learn more about the management of surgery-related pain.


If axillary lymph nodes are removed during surgery, there’s some risk of lymphedema.

Lymphedema is a condition where fluid collects in the arm (or other area such as the hand, fingers, chest/breast or back), causing it to swell.

Learn more about lymphedema.

Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, HER2-targeted therapy or other drug therapy

The type of surgery you have does not affect whether you will have chemotherapy, hormone therapy, HER2-targeted therapy or other drug therapy.

Drug therapies are given based on the characteristics of the tumor, not the type of surgery you have. For example, whether or not you will need hormone therapy and/or HER2-targeted therapy depend on the biomarkers, hormone receptor status and HER2 status.

Learn about other factors that affect these treatment options

Differences in lumpectomy rates

Personal preferences

Personal preference matters a lot when deciding between lumpectomy and mastectomy. Some women very much wish to keep their breasts, while for others, mastectomy offers peace of mind.

Where you live may affect your surgery choice. Compared to women who live in urban areas, those who live in rural areas are more likely to have mastectomy [9]. Women who live far from a center that offers radiation therapy (needed for lumpectomy) may prefer to have mastectomy.

Talk with your health care provider about surgery options

Not all women can have lumpectomy plus radiation therapy. Talk with your health care provider about whether lumpectomy is an option for you.

Learn about the risks and benefits of each surgery option. Talk with your health care provider about which treatments are best for you. This can help you feel you’re getting the best care possible.

Second opinions

It’s always OK to get a second opinion from a medical oncologist and/or breast surgeon at a different hospital or practice. Getting a second opinion can:

  • Instill confidence in the first health care provider by confirming a treatment plan
  • Give a different insight into your treatment
  • Increase your options for care
  • Give you a chance to meet with another health care provider, who may be better suited to treat your cancer

Learn more about getting high-quality care.

Updated 05/26/22